Coronavirus Dystrophy? A dystrophy is defined as a disorder in which an organ or tissue of the body wastes away. Dystrophy is globally prevalent, challenging those that fear those tiny microbes and avoid them. Further challenges are ahead for those that test positive. Then there is the likelihood of death. There is no clear cure, treatment, and vaccine.
I have myotonic dystrophy,type 1. Myotonic dystrophy affects at least 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. The prevalence of the two types of myotonic dystrophy varies among different geographic and ethnic populations. In most populations, type 1 appears to be more common than type 2. It is a genetic disease. It also has no clear cure, treatment, or vaccine. Myotonic Dystrophy is among over 150 muscular dystrophies monitored by the global Muscular Dystrophy Association network. It has challenges, disabilities, and deaths.
Greater prevalence and studies were aimed at Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. At the age of 25, the survival rate was 13.5% in DMD patients born in the 1960s, 31.6% in those born in the 1970s, and 49.2% in patients born in the 1980s. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle disorder but it is one of the most frequent genetic conditions affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 male births worldwide. … The disease is progressive and most affected individuals require a wheelchair by the teenage years.
Coronavirus diseases are types of a dystrophy as it threatens the majorities of people who never gave virus pandemics a second thought. There are many people for whom mobility involves social distancing and constant adaptations every day. More than 18 million people have limited mobility caused by everything from accidents to disease to the aging process. Six million of those 18 million are veterans. One in five elderly people struggle with mobility. The number of veterans with disabilities has increased dramatically by 25 percent since 2001. Many adapt to their world with canes, walkers, prostheses, and wheelchairs.
Coronavirus-19 or SARS-2 viruses are tiny microbes that pass through the air and linger on surfaces. They are germs and we live with germs in and around us every day. Coronavirus-19 is particularly infectious and invisibly travel within environments with wide temperature ranges. Over 400,000 have tested and have caught it. There are about 19,000 deaths attributed, and about 110,000 recoveries globally. About 300,000 are mild and about 110,000 are severe.
The numbers of those testing positive vary. Test availability is low and offered to those who display flu-like symptoms. As more testing is done, total numbers of potential coronavirus-19 cases rise within a distribution of people. Then the question arises whether tests are specifically measuring for coronavirus type viruses or only version 19. Coronavirus is not new to humans. 19 is.
Human coronavirus is a common, enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus, with most people contracting it during their lifetime. Coronaviruses cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses. There are six currently known strains of coronaviruses that infect humans. The most common infection globally is from human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. The much publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis. The six human coronaviruses are: alpha coronaviruses 229E and NL63, and beta coronaviruses OC43, HKU1, SARS-CoV (SARS), and MERS-CoV (the coronavirus that causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS). Are professionals testing all 6 or only for 1? Test results have changed from taking days to minutes – in just a matter of weeks. Are analyses being compromised? For now,these are the best tests available.
Do pets factor in Sars-Cov spread? Over the last 70 years, scientists have found that coronaviruses can infect mice, rats, dogs, cats, turkeys, horses, pigs, and cattle. Sometimes, these animals can transmit coronaviruses to humans. Ancient plagues were likely results of rodent populations found in the hulls of cargo ships. Naples and Venice were identified as ports that needed to quarantine ships. Rats have been associated with shipping for thousands of years. Roman ships brought the black rat to the British Isles over 1,600 years ago. The brown rat, commonly known as the wharf rat, is found on every continent in the world except Antarctica — much of the spread attributable to being carried on ships and boats. Can hugging your cat or dog give you Sars-Cov? Can breeding animals or poultry contribute to numbers of Coronavirus cases?
A recent Scientific American article considered climate change as a possibility. “As the Earth continues to warm, many scientists expect to see changes in the timing, geography and intensity of disease outbreaks around the world.”
The coronavirus is an uncommonly common influenza or flu that has fever, congestion, coughs, and digestive symptoms. It is one of 6 identifiable types, with many variations and sub-types that are unknown. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide, annual influenza epidemics result in about 3-5 million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. In the United States, individual cases of seasonal flu and flu-related deaths in adults are not reportable illnesses; consequently, mortality is estimated by using statistical models.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that flu-associated deaths in the US ranged from about 3000 to 49,000 annually between 1976 and 2006. The CDC notes that the often-cited figure of 36,000 annual flu-related deaths was derived from years when the predominant virus subtype was H3N2, which tends to be more lethal than H1N1. Yes, there are many families of viruses and some have greater and lesser impact. There are flu vaccines available that cover many known viruses.
As with a dystrophy, there are no specific treatments or cures. Unlike dystrophy, a flu tends to be acute rather than chronic. Yet, we know little of coronavirus-19. It, unlike most chronic mobile disabilities, is contagious.
A modeling study in Singapore of Coronavirus-19 (common name) was published 3/24/20 in Lancet, a British Medical Journal:
A new modelling study conducted in a simulated Singapore setting has estimated that a combined approach of physical distancing interventions, comprising quarantine (for infected individuals and their families), school closure, and workplace distancing, is most effective at reducing the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases compared with other intervention scenarios included in the study.
The previous week, the USA NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases noted that “new research finds that the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is stable for several hours to days in aerosols and on surfaces. Scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detectable in aerosols for up to three hours, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel.” It’s contagion possibilities are more enduring than merely sneezes in a public setting. Sneezes and coughs travel as much as 6 feet.
Prior and since this recent pandemic, some scientific studies were done. With small samples and short duration, these study results are rather inconclusive to large populations.
Science experimentation for large groups require time, depth, and retesting. Some are half-baked.
A quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient – random assignment. These are “queasy” experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling. With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins. Queasy is easy.
A clinical study is based on selected populations with random and double-blind secure measures. A clinical study involves research using human volunteers (also called participants) that is intended to add to medical knowledge. There are two main types of clinical studies: clinical trials (also called interventional studies) and observational studies. ClinicalTrials.gov (USA) includes both interventional and observational studies.
ClinicalTrials.gov uses specific strict, ethical guidelines that filter out hunches and opinions. A clinical study is conducted according to a research plan known as the protocol. The protocol is designed to answer specific research questions and safeguard the health of participants. It contains the following information:
The reason for conducting the study
Who may participate in the study (the eligibility criteria)
The number of participants needed
The schedule of tests, procedures, or drugs and their dosages
The length of the study
What information will be gathered about the participants
Conclusions are statistically studied and interpreted. Idea in science is to determine the validity as to whether the original purpose was true or false. As you see, these studies can not be rushed. Many need several clinical trials prior to reaching conclusions. False sponsors and politics can confound results. Personal interests tend to prefer quasi-experiments.
People with dystrophy adapt their lives to a world that doesn’t recognize their special needs to use public and business areas. Many restrict. Years past, these were invalid – not valid individuals. Today. is a bit better. It’s life with distance and restrictions that require adaptations to do activities most take for granted.
Adapting to social distancing and curfews may reduce spread of contagion. We live in a digital age that allows work from home, video-conferencing, social media, investing-banking, and wide access to education and entertainment. Delivery services help businesses bring products and food to customers Coronavirus-19 impact is not yet known. The world is in panic mode. Eventually, a new normal will evolve.
Religious, social, and forums are finding avenues to use online access. Old methods of living are challenged by climate changes, social changes, and new diseases. When online developed, we knew it was wise to use internet security software. As we witness Coronavirus impact, we must study our powers and dystrophy to revise how we coexist with future changes. It’s adapting to new realities, based on our histories.
If one was a gambler, it’s likely that coronavirus 20 may be in our future. Odds are better than an asteroid hitting our planet. At the very least, lessons learned from current coronavirus dystrophy may help us improve coping with subsequent viruses. Rest assured, viruses have existed long before humans. They will evolve ever after.
Viruses will continue to be active and develop to cause new infections. Sars-Cov2 is the root of many fears. We hope that changing lifestyles, social distancing, and temporary quarantines help prevent spread. Continued virology research may produce weapons to allow humans to normalize. After a 2-trillion dollar USA economic package, I hope that the fiscal budgets consider more money to advance virus research to prevent calamities like the SARS-Cov2, coronavirus-19 pandemic. Without it, future generations will develop coronavirus dystrophy.