Global warming from within ocean hydrothermal vents

Climate change is a comprehensive issue. Has the world always had climate changes? They were reported in the biblical book of Genesis of the Old Testament. Of course they didn’t track weather patterns then. Burning forests may be the result of human error – an incorrectly disposed cigarette. Hydrothermal vents deep in our seas and oceans are recent discoveries where molten magma meets nearly frozen water. Are warming waters a problem from these natural hydrothermal vents?

Climate change is one of the major challenges confronting the future of planet Earth as we know it. All those Deep Planet videos we might watch demonstrate that beneath the oceanic depths are cracks, fissures, nooks, crannies as dangerous as the highest mountains above sea levels. Discoveries of hydrothermal vents at the ocean bottoms raise serious questions of warming waters and melting ice. Are we cooking from within?

Seismologists track the planet surface movements 24/7 at hundreds of points. Their information is critical predicting earthquakes and earthquake severity. Some movements are like hums while others crackle and pop. Global warming from within occurs during those innocent hums. That’s when hydrothermal vents form.

Hydrothermal vents occur at both diverging and converging plate boundaries. Heat is released as magma rises and cracks the ocean floor and overlying sediments. Seawater drains into the fractures and becomes super-heated, dissolving minerals and concentrating sulfur and other compounds. Sea creatures in those depths either thrive or die. At those greater depths via exploration equipment technologies many thrive.

Cold water meshes with extremely hot molten rock magma as vents burst through ocean floor. Discovered only in 1977, hydrothermal vents are home to dozens of previously unknown species. Huge red-tipped tube worms, ghostly fish, strange shrimp with eyes on their backs and other unique species thrive in these extreme deep ocean ecosystems found near undersea volcanic chains. These are the fit that have survived the initial heat blasts of formed hydrothermal vents. For us, these vents are as foreign as radio waves from galaxies 900 million light years away. But they exist throughout our planet.

For the most part these occasional hydrothermal vents for magma are relatively small…a few centimeters. For the most part, earth crust at ocean temperatures act as potent barriers. Then there’s human impact. In the past, the main human impact affecting deep-sea ecosystems was the dumping or disposal of litter into the oceans. If it were only litter. Humans have tossed some heavy items and waste that landed on ocean floors. All it takes is a tiny crack and a century to make a hydrothermal vent.

Hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor may have some impact at releasing volcanic heat into our water systems, impacting ice formations and weather patterns as extreme heat converges with extreme cold. The severity is there may be communities of these hydrothermal vents deregulating a regulation system formed over millions of years.

People use hydrothermal energy for survival. Regulation of body temperature in vertebrates is a function of a central mechanism and the main thermoregulatory organ is again the hypothalamus, particularly the preoptic area (POA), where the sensory input on the brain temperature and core temperature is integrated. Other parts of the central nervous system, such as the brainstem and spinal cord, are also involved in thermo-regulation. Our bodies sweat because our skin has pores that help maintain thermoregulation.

Your hypothalamus is a section of your brain that controls thermoregulation. When it senses your internal temperature becoming too low or high, it sends signals to your muscles, organs, glands, and nervous system. They respond in a variety of ways to help return your temperature to normal.

The problems encountering ocean floor regularization are that if there may be one vent then there may be more hydrothermal vents forming a community. Each involves a hot/cold exchange and regulation is a war of average potentials.

And that process helps sustain a deep ocean balance. Most living things on earth depend on sunlight as the ultimate source of energy. Green plants use sunlight to make food by the process of photosynthesis. In the darkness of the ocean depths there is no sunlight for photosynthesis. So how do living things survive in such an environment? The answer is found in bacteria that can use another source of energy to make food.

Water coming out of a vent is rich not only in dissolved minerals but also in chemosynthetic bacteria. These bacteria are capable of utilizing sulfur compounds to produce organic material through the process of chemosynthesis. The bacteria are autotrophs that oxidize hydrogen sulfide in vent water to obtain energy, which is used to produce organic material (i.e. grow themselves).

Chemosynthetic bacteria are the primary producers and form the base of vent food webs. All vent animals ultimately depend on the bacteria for food. So hydrothermal vents are very beneficial to creatures living at the dark oceanic depths. For all we know, these vent/water exchanges have been present since the earth first developed its crust. Billions of years ago, according to science theoretical models.

Presence of hydrothermal vents probably have little to do with global warming. Releasing noxious gas and waste into our ecosystems may have had more impact. These vents may be natural players that rewrite regulation parameters of planetary climates. Climate change refers to the changes in the global climate which result from the increasing average global temperature. For example, changes in precipitation patterns, increased prevalence of droughts, heat waves, and other extreme weather, etc.

The debate is serious. On the nay side, earth’s weather patterns have only been recorded for the past 150 years. Yet, since the industrial revolution, about 300 years ago, new chemicals found their way into our vast ecosystem. Also, we are discovering more fluctuations of the space of our solar system and scientists are exploring phenomena such as hydrothermal vents. So there are statistical outliers that boggle finite conclusions. But, in our lifetimes, changes in climates have been observed.

Within hydrothermal vents, influences on water temperatures are vague. Hydrothermal fluid temperatures can reach 400°C (750°F) or more, but they do not boil under the extreme pressure of the deep ocean. As they pour out of a vent, the fluids encounter cold, oxygenated seawater, causing another, more rapid series of chemical reactions to occur.

Based on global water temperature statistics: The average temperature of the entire ocean surfaces usually ranges from 15 to 17 degrees Celsius (59 to 62.9 degrees Fahrenheit). There is a barrier between the surface water and deeper layers of the ocean that are not mixed. The barrier begins around 100 meters and can extend another few hundred meters downward. The average temperature of deep-ocean water is only 2°C (36°F). The water coming directly from a hydrothermal vent can reach up to 350°C (662°F) and is rich in dissolved chemicals. The hot spring water forms a plume above the vent, somewhat like smoke rising from a chimney into the air. Temperature-sensing instruments, towed behind research vessels, can detect these hot-water plumes and aid oceanographers in locating hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor.

Like hot springs and geysers on land, hydrothermal vents form in volcanically active areas—often on mid-ocean ridges, where Earth’s tectonic plates are spreading apart and where magma wells up to the surface or close beneath the seafloor.

These hot plumes of water from reactions with hydrothermal vents may contribute to ocean water temperatures from within.

As far as carbon dioxide releases into the air, results revealed that dissolved organic carbon is efficiently removed from ocean water when heated. The organic molecules are broken down and the carbon converted to carbon dioxide. The entire ocean volume circulates through hydrothermal vents about every 40 million years, according to theorists studying at University of Georgia.

Climate effects from vast forest fires, waste disposal, and gluttony for fossil fuels may be stressing our planetary biomes. They may arise from ignorance, irresponsibility, profit, convenience, and other factors. The vast fires of Australia may have been started by campers and smokers. 14 people have been arrested. Humans and humanity may be more significant drivers of climate changes than hydrothermal vents.

On seismology offices the earth is humming. Is it a happy or sad tune?

Do not touch me Sensory Processing Disorder SPD

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My early research was in sensitivities. I wasn’t all that interested with allergies, the immune system, and emotions. I was interested in how our 5 senses plus nerves/muscles interact and adapt to our environments, learning, talents, relationships, and mobility. How did our brains process our awareness? Adaptations and conflicts? My interests focused on hyposensitivity (Hyposensitivity to touch and movement refers to low or abnormally decreased sensitivity to motion and sense of touch) and Hypersensitivity (high sensitivity to the environment can be defined as acute physical, mental, and emotional responses to one’s external (environmental, social) stimuli. Highly sensitive people feel and sense things far more strongly than others do). That was a pretty full plate about 30 years ago. Stemming from peers, more sensory research and advanced technologies brought about a new condition affecting children and adults. Sensory Processing Disorder or SPD has opened new scopes of research that in some ways bridge and compete with autism, obsessive-compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

Estimates believe that 1 in 20 may have SPD or 5% of the population as studied. While some may be hypoactive, most studies focus on hyperactive situations that lead to learning disorders and advanced interactive conflicts. ADHD is fairly close at 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women. ADHD has treatment via prescription pills. Thus far, SPD does not. Hypersensitive behavior in people is found in 15 to 20% of the population. So the focus is justifiable.

There appears to be a tendency, made popular by ADHD and Autistic Spread Spectrum, to cluster unique behaviors in children and adults. SPD is a malfunction of body awareness, perceptions, and related balance. Some kids seem to have trouble handling the information their senses take in—things like sound, touch, taste, sight, and smell. Some of those kids take it to adulthood.

Is it due to behavior? Genetics? Upbringing? Maybe. Few studies have been able to validate or invalidate why SPD develops. Those with Sensory Processing Disorder, sensory information goes into the brain but does not get organized into appropriate responses, according to neuroscience studies. In these ways neuroscience has established how SPD is associated with Autism Spread Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD).

SPD is not one specific disorder, but rather an umbrella term that covers a variety of neurological disabilities. Because the child with SPD has a disorganized brain, many aspects of his behavior are disorganized. Being classified as a disability would require extensive documentation as SPD isn’t fully recognized in children and adults.

Modern theorists point to our individualistic characteristics and development. For example fingerprints are very unique to the individual. Many things are unique, such as blood and tissue types, features, diseases. Brains filled with many neuronal networks may have deviated “wiring”, making ASD, ADHD, SPD and other diseases like DDX3X difficult to treat. It may be the result of genetics and hereditary as causes. Deviated wiring may be the effect among kids that otherwise appear normal and happy. Yet, in school or social settings, they tend to perform with difficulties. Children with SPD struggle with processing stimulation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms, including hypersensitivity to sound, sight and touch. Yet, knowing this, may indicate that SPD may be more of a problem than ADHD or ASD. Think of it as a form of dyslexia of the brain.
SPD can be hard to pinpoint, as up to 90 percent of children with autism also are reported to have atypical sensory behaviors, and SPD has not been listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual used by psychiatrists and psychologists.

One of the things common in SPD and ASD (but not seriously studied in ADHD) is bursts of overload attacks. Think of variation of brainwaves that allow us to remain alert, relaxed, and asleep. These kids are always on beta (alert) waves that may be painful and distracting.

Scientists are just beginning to understand and tinker with how people can live and excel with SPD, with some very good successes from very small samples. Use of medicines, special diets, lifestyle changes were included but no firm method. Traditionally, SPD made use of occupational therapy but with mixed results.

Historically, SPD gained little attention as diagnostics were poorly developed. Scopes and PET scanners were only diagnostic tools. As the 21st century rolled in more studies recognized SPD, despite its absence from the DSM. In 2013 a breakthrough study hypothesized that there were more SPD cases than ASD cases in schools.. Yet, how did scientists test for SPD and were those tests reliable?

For adults ADDitude made a self-test survey that adults could fill out. Surveys are subjective and not considered scientific. Provides guidelines of what questions were answered more or less.

In children, SPD may be observed by parents as toddlers experience problems. Parents notice that a child has an unusual aversion to noise, light, shoes that are deemed too tight and clothes that are irritating. They may also notice clumsiness and trouble climbing stairs, and difficulty with fine motor skills like wielding a pencil and fastening buttons.

Of course there are many child development disorders that offer similar symptoms but SPD subtly differs at sensitivities to light, touch, noises, and clothing.

Diagnosis may be a little tricky. Most doctors may jump at ADHD or ASD, as there is some symptom overlap. More thorough exams may explore genetics to reveal DDX3X, dystrophies, and other possibilities. If you report hypersensitive issues to many sensory stimuli, doctor may refer you to an occupational therapist. These professionals can assess children for SPD. They will likely use a series of questions and observations to make a diagnosis. They may observe how your child reacts to certain stimuli. Occupational therapy (OT) is considered a viable therapy for SPD prospects. Beware, their observations may be skewed. OT has had mixed results at efficacy as a treatment.

Adults with SPD also get confused with misdiagnoses. OT is less effective. They have already adjusted to dressing comfortably. Some find role-play effective for compromising actual situations involving mobility at work or shopping or other things that require mobility. Interaction is generally mild. Hypersensitivity means people with SPD people have very low thresholds to variances of others and loudness.

People with SPD experience over reactive processing which can amplify the senses and create over sensitivity to stimuli resulting in sensory overload. To a person without SPD, a train is loud but tolerable, but to a person with SPD, that sound can be stifling, intolerable and even painful, creating anger and avoidance. Travel by public transportation is usually avoided. Yes, a crowded elevator or interior space may be unnerving.

Dating and intimacy are particularly challenging to the SPD and the other. Does the person reveal she has SPD? Some might prefer something out-of-the-box, something people call kinky. Socially, sadomasochistic communities and dominant/submissive relationships may be an integrative comfort zone for a person with SPD. While they are not mutually SPD friendly, the SPD dater doesn’t necessarily share an SPD diagnosis.

Someone dating someone with SPD is flaunting with unique everyday challenges. If you think, “Not tonight, dear, I have a headache” is a flimsy excuse, what would you think about “Not tonight, dear, you’ve put the wrong sheets on the bed again and the refrigerator sounds terrible, and you smell like you just got off an airplane, and my cocoa had lumps in it, and therefore I’m overwhelmed and can’t bear to be touched”?

That is not to say that a person with SPD has to kiss intimate relationships adieu. For people with tactile defensiveness (very sensitive to touch, gets irritated) type of SPD, sex is especially difficult. Since sex involves a lot of touching (including kissing, cuddling, fondling…and touching all the way and I have to stop mentioning the obvious details), some people with tactile SPD are averse to sexual activities. But, by adopting masochistic tendencies, may tolerate and exceed their threshold. The pain is rationalized within a supportive relationship.

Adults with sensory dysfunction issues have to cope with the challenges of everyday life while struggling with their neurological responses to such things as ceiling fans, background noise, off-gassing synthetic carpets, too many people talking at once, uncomfortable work clothes, and so on. So…typical dating environments might be like a tunnel of horrors.

Sounds, sights, smells, textures, and tastes can create a feeling of “sensory overload.” Bright or flickering lights, loud noises, certain textures of food, and scratchy clothing are just some of the triggers that can make kids and affected adults feel overwhelmed and upset.

SPD is not a mood disorder. It should not be confused with autism or ADHD, though symptoms overlap. Using Concerta for ADHD may help some symptoms of SPD but not all. SPD clearly stems from a brain that has been developed slightly differently, per University of California San Francisco study.

In studies, SPD is emerging as a new, exciting star but so much more research is necessary. Part of the problem is the condition is not professionally accepted. Although sensory processing disorder is accepted in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R), it is not recognized as a mental disorder in medical manuals such as the ICD-10 or the DSM-5. This restricts orthodox treatment.

Sensory processing is the way each of us responds to incoming sensory information. We learn and grow through our senses which include touch, sight, sound, smell, taste, proprioception, and vestibular sensations. We manage our day-to-day activities through all the information our bodies take in. Ninety percent of this information is actually below our conscious level of awareness. A worker with SPD may find these normally unconscious stimuli as disturbing, in a condition that evolves with age.

Many workplaces have ways they can adapt for medical conditions or they can get assistance from an occupational therapist in order to make ADAAA accommodations. Most companies may not even be aware of sensory processing issues and how much they can affect some people’s lives. Awareness is key and simple changes can drastically affect some people’s lives and work performance.

Like individual fingerprints, muscle and nerve issues, skin issues, brains follow specific guidelines when developing. Takes about 3 to 5 years on average. SPD develops in the brain as a form of distortion affecting senses at varying degrees. For the most part, adults with SPD are smart, articulate, and welcoming. Beware the hypersensitivities. You must be super-tolerant.

Being part of the human race, there are so many permutations and combinations that alter ourselves and realities. At our most normal, we disguise our frailties. Throughout conflicts, betweens, and hugs, our bodies and minds have differing capacities. We must join together to battle challenges. From my early efforts of understanding sensitivity in the 1990’s, we’ve slowly crept to understand that when someone says “Do not touch me”, it might be sensory overload or SPD. Answers lie in ever afters.

Pink Tax gender gaps subtly make feminism costly

Expectant parents know the gender of their child early on. Great for figuring what colors to get for clothing and furniture. Blue for boys. Pink for girls. As they grow to teen years, the spread goes beyond color. Pink seems to be a premium. In this post-feminist generation, is there a pink tax?

Being pretty in pink usually refers to a female. Women are leading consumers. Yet, many are unaware of a nearly invisible discrimination. It is called a Pink Tax. The pink tax refers to the extra amount women are charged for certain products or services. Things like dry cleaning, personal care products, and vehicle maintenance.

Watching new westerns, female heroines wear form-fitting jeans as if they were custom made. Haute couture in the feminine wild west? Reality was women wore men’s jeans. Then came the 20th century and women became alluring females. Modern feminine fashion was born and generated billions of dollars toward the economy. All variables changed. Feminism changed the political and economic outlooks. In the debates of life, death, and taxes, women encounter one divisible invisible – a special tax for women – a Pink Tax. According to the New York Times, in 2014 that “women’s” products with the same ingredients and/or materials were often far more expensive than “men’s” products. The pink tax refers to the extra amount women are charged for certain products or services. Things like dry cleaning, personal care products, and vehicle maintenance.

In this modern day and age, the pink tax not only affects women but has also been observed by the transgender population. You need to be rich to compete as a woman among women. Men pay less.

According to a study from NYC Consumer Affair, Products for women or girls cost 7% more than comparable products for men and boys. The Consumer Federation of America indicates A 2015 study by the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, one of CFA’s members, documented that gender price discrimination exists in a wide variety of consumer goods, from clothing to personal care products. This is essentially a gender tax levied on women that adds up to thousands of dollars over the course of their lives. The department compared nearly 800 products with clear male and female versions from more than 90 brands. They found that in all but 5 of the 35 product categories analyzed, items for female consumers were priced higher than the same items for male consumers.

7% more for toys and accessories
4% more for children’s clothing
8% more for adult clothing
13% more for personal care products
8% more for senior/home health care products

Pink tax refers to this invisible cost that women have to pay for products designed and marketed specifically to them, while the generic or male equivalent of the same products are available for less. It is not just big corporations in the retail space that push women to spend on their appearance. Social scientists and retail experts say that this stems from the fact that society in general, typically, holds women to a higher standard when it comes to their appearance.

According to Healthline, “Gender-based pricing, also known as “pink tax,” is an upcharge on products traditionally intended for women which have only cosmetic differences from comparable products traditionally intended for men.” Scents and packaging are obvious differences. A cologne for men has leather and wood fragrances while women get floral scents. Packaging is black or blue for men. Pastels are used for women.

For example, a five-pack of Schick Hydro cartridges in purple packaging cost $18.49, while the same count of Schick Hydro refills in blue packaging cost $14.99. Again, other than their packaging color, the products look exactly the same.

Is it nature or nurture?

A recent discovery is that women actually have more rods and cones in their eyes than men. This allows women to see more detail, which partially explains why men sometimes see an ordinary room, while women see complete filth. Men simply aren’t able to see dust and finer particles as easily as women, and therefore are unaware of its presence. However, there are other scientific reasons why female perception differs from that of their male counterparts. Many studies cite evidence that there are gender differences among male and female brains. Do these justify pink tax rates?

One of the more curious things about the pink tax is that feminine hygiene products mostly have no sales tax. Contraceptives catering to females do carry a tax.

A typical men’s haircut may be around $30. A typical haircut for a woman might start at %50. While men do get manicures, men are charged around $10. A woman….$15 and up. The discrepancies are staggering!

So while the US Congress was preparing impeachment proceedings on President Trump, the H.R. 2048: Pink Tax Repeal Act was introduced on April 3 2019.

While this act hasn’t been processed by the US Senate, Canada also has a pink tax. The “pink tax” refers to the phenomenon of gender-based price discrimination, where items whose ads target women are often priced higher than similar products advertised towards men. For example, a 2016 study found that women in Canada pay over 40 per cent more than what men pay when it comes to personal care products.

Good Housekeeping Magazine indicates:

“Women are consistently paid less than men for the same work. Currently, women make 80.5 cents for every dollar a man earns, a gender wage gap of 20 percent. For women of color, the gap is even wider. Women are also often charged a higher interest rate for mortgage loans, despite their consistently higher credit ratings.”

Feminism changed women’s lives and created new worlds of possibility for education, empowerment, working women, feminist art and feminist theory. The US Congress and US Senate elected more women in 2018 as a historic landmark. Yet, when it comes to cosmetics and fashion women spend considerably more than men. And, worse, are often evaluated critically by other women.

While it is valid that women’s fashion menus are wider than men’s, data was not collected. Conceivably most high fashion designer dresses cost more than 3 men’s suits.

Tailoring clothes are usually higher for women than men for off-the-rack clothing. Many women choose haute-couture limited editions that are custom made at prices that only the rich can afford. A haute couture garment is always made for an individual client, tailored specifically for the wearer’s measurements and body stance. Women wear them to award shows. Designer couture gowns typically start at $30,000. Men suits are usually off the rack. Hemming pants and sleeves are usually $50.

We aren’t even talking shoes and accessories!!

When it comes to appearance, women may dress bolder but far more expensive. Good thing is that one of the women at Golden Globe 2020 is auctioning her dress for charity. I believe more do the same.

The pink tax may be unfair and I hope the repeal passes the US Senate. Yet, it is a tiny step for feminism. Let’s see how future generations fare.

Understanding selfish and selfless

Being selfish is negative. Being selfless is good. Is that so? Selfish and selfless are seemingly close relatives.

Selfish is a marker of establishing territory where you are the center. The two primary characteristics of selfishness are being concerned excessively or exclusively with oneself;
Having no regard for the needs or feelings of others.

It is totally different than selfish behaviors of a child that says this toy is mine, this clothing is mine. This room is mine. Kids grow out from that behavior. Well…maybe some.

Ironically, people who are selfish are usually unaware of the fact, believing they are genuinely nice people. A selfish person cares only about themselves (obviously) and creating happiness for them, regardless of how others are affected. Individuals who are extremely caring and emotionally understanding are typically the ones who are “used and abused” by the selfish. In the beginning, they will seem caring and looking to pamper you, but only long enough for you to let your guard down.

Is selfless the exact opposite of selfish? Many intellectuals say no. This is because selflessness isn’t even possible. The choice to ever be “selfless” will always be driven by a form of serving one’s self? No person chooses to be selfless because THEY absolutely hate it or are against doing it. People choose to be selfless because THEY want to, or believe they should be because of some virtue they hold dear, etc. Regardless of the reason for choosing it, the reason always serves some aspect of their self/being.

Many people distinguish selfish people as those who take and selfless people as those who give. Generally speaking, “selfless” gets a warmer welcome and is more widely accepted as “good”. Neither selfishness nor selflessness is good or bad. In fact, the two concepts are intricately linked. A relatively small study using 36 people was researched in Japan by Riken.

These volunteers were asked to choose one of two options, each with a baseline reward to themselves. One option then involved an extra financial reward for the participants and the other, a reward to ‘others’—in this case a series of well-known charities.

The group looked at what happened when a person is giving an extra reward to one of the charities, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a computational modeling method called a connectivity analysis. They discovered that there is a three-stage cascade process involved.

In the first stage, the brain detects a perceived benefit to others. The first stage was accompanied by neural activity in the right temporoparietal junction (right TPJ) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (left dlPFC) regions. The second stage involves understanding the impact of the offer of value on the outcome. This corresponded to activity in the right anterior insula (salience network). The third stage is the actual decision-making process. Decision-making corresponded to activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), supporting findings from previous studies that have implicated the mPFC in strategic reasoning.

One of the most striking findings was that there was a distinct difference in the neural processes involved in giving to others between prosocial and individualistic subjects. This difference existed even when the two groups chose similar things in the original task.

This isn’t all about selfishness and generosity, but rather perceptions of value, emphasize the researchers. Rather than being altruistic, a generous subject may be perceived more value in social contributions or be subject to predispositions such as inequity aversion and guilt. The team have called the process of deciding to give to others ‘social value conversion’. In the paper, the team predicted that social value conversion is actually a primitive computation that may be essential for different forms of social behavior.

The team’s findings provide building blocks for investigating more complex forms of social decision-making. Exploring ideas about generosity and selfishness would call into question the role of cultural and religious factors, and variations across countries and regions, for example, in accounting for how we each perceive and take on board consideration for others.

Subject volunteers were age 20 to 32 and total subjects were 32. A very small study as fMRI is a very costly device that tracks how the brain is activating neural networks in decision making. Selfishness and selflessness are associated within a brain’s social neuronal networks. So the links are valid but in a small scale.

When psychologists evaluate selfish behaviors, many indicate:
Manipulation. …
Uncaring. …
Plotting and scheming. …
Self-centered and conceited. …
Giving and sharing do not come easily. …
Expectations of others to do things for them.

Psychologists view selflessness as a set of altruistic behaviors as helping others as a reward. Altruism involves acting out of concern for the well-being of other people. In some cases, these acts of altruism lead people to jeopardize their own health and well-being to help others. In many cases, these behaviors are performed unselfishly and without any expectations of reward. This is valued as empathy at being pro-social vs selfish as anti-social. But are the two so very far apart?

Some social psychologists believe that while people do often behave altruistically for selfish reasons, true altruism is possible. Others have instead suggested that empathy for others is often guided by a desire to help yourself. Quite ironic!

The self preservation always wins. Our brains may have a self referential bias. To test for self-referential bias in working memory, the research team, a collaboration between Duke University, the University of Bath in the U.K. and Southwest University in China and funded by Chinese government grants, created a computer program and tested it on 102 study participants.

First, participants learned to associate the colors blue, green and purple to labels of “friend,” “stranger” or “self” with a simple game. Then, two different-colored dots, like green and purple, would briefly flash on the screen. After a five-second pause, during which participants had to remember the locations and colors of the previous dots, a black dot would appear on screen. Participants then indicated if the black dot flashed in the same place as one of the colored dots, and if so, which label fit.

Participants correctly identified the “self”-labeled dots significantly faster than the “friend” or “stranger” dots. That meant their working memory focused on the dots labeled with the “self” color.

Referential thinking is the tendency to view innocuous stimuli as having a specific meaning for the self and is associated with personality traits and disorders.

The SRC (Self Reference Criterion) is an unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, and knowledge as a basis for decisions. Closely connected is ethnocentrism, that is, the notion that people in one’s own company, culture, or country know best how to do things.

In the recent US Congress Impeachment decision, the SRC was very high with both parties. Each party’s SRC was so bound in “self” bias hat there were no crossing over party lines.

SRC plays roles in a variety of lifestyles. Each individual owns his/her particular lifestyle behavior as preservation of self identity. These are matched by neurotransmitter studies. with particular focus on serotonin.

What of altruism? One person’s SRC usually outweighs it. Altruistic motivations, for example, contribute to the well-being of another even though it may be at their own expense. Differentiating between altruistically motivated, norm motivated, strategically motivated and self-reported prosocial behaviors are rather confusing. Human prosociality is a complex phenomenon, a fact that is reflected in the number and diversity of measures that are used
to assess prosocial behavior across different disciplines.

Whether self preservation is selfish or selfless, it’s all biased to a pseudo-narcissistic protection of each self, as a master or a submissive of our own fate. From weight management, economy, and friendships, and opinions we may give others unconditional positive regard but we always think of our SRC first and our own conditions for the self.

Whether selfish or selfless, self is always first. Then we choose others. Yet, when cognitive rationing comes into play selflessness becomes more influential.

CRPS Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

When it comes to mid-life, there are changes. There are pains of all kinds. New and old. Some are lifestyle related and some seem to emerge from nowhere. They aren’t fibromyalgia, neuralgia, rheumatism. They fall into the cracks between the planks of established. The pains are more than one. They are syndromes that develop with age. One such syndrome is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or CRPS for friendliness.

Having a Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is one of hundreds of physical, mental and emotional syndromes that confuse patients and doctors.

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic (lasting greater than six months) pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury. CRPS is believed to be caused by damage to, or malfunction of, the peripheral and central nervous systems. According to Stanford Medical schools, the main symptoms are severe pain, swelling, and changes in the skin. Although CRPS can occur anywhere in the body, it usually affects an arm, leg, hand, or foot. CRPS can make your life seem very crappy.

In this era of specialization, it is very difficult to localize pain issues and CRPS may become worse or better over time periods of less than one year. When it flares, it is disabling. Yet, insurance approaches have severely limited restrictions on seeing a disease as a singular entity or as a syndrome of several.

One method of diagnosis, apart from the observation of symptoms, is a bone scan. MRI scans and X-rays are also used to detect CRPS, for much the same reasons as bone scans. X-rays may be able to pick up irregularities or mineral loss from bones, while MRI’s can show a number of tissue irregularities.

According to the Mayo Clinic, CRPS is thought to be caused by an injury to or an abnormality of the peripheral and central nervous systems. CRPS typically occurs as a result of a trauma or an injury. Complex regional pain syndrome occurs in two types, with similar signs and symptoms, but different causes. Are these causes due to passed indiscretions (falls, accidents, traumas) that you recovered easily from earlier years? CRPS appears ti the 40’s as changing-life issues develop in women and men. According to the Mayo Clinic, CRPS is divided into two types: CRPS-I and CRPS-II. Individuals without a confirmed nerve injury are classified as having CRPS-I (previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome). CRPS-II (previously known as causalgia) is when there is an associated, confirmed nerve injury.

CRPS I, formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)—here, no nerve lesions can be identified. A dystrophy is a muscular disease and RSD is treated as among the hundreds of dystrophies exhibiting muscle weaknesses. Alas, there are no specified treatments or cures for muscular dystrophies.

CRPS II (formerly known as causalgia). The symptoms of this syndrome include evidence of a nerve lesion.

CRPS/RSD is a life-altering chronic condition. Living with CRPS/RSD offers many challenges to those who are affected by it. Challenges include difficulties with diagnosis, coping strategies after diagnosis, caregiver concerns, differences in the problems faced by adults and youths, insurance, workman’s compensation and other issues.

While there are some research studies, data and conclusions are still sparse.

Perhaps one of the most simple of the problems is that most pain management professionals still don’t know how to diagnose CRPS as a syndrome. They only treat symptoms.

There is no single diagnostic tool for CRPS or RSD. Physicians diagnose it based on patient history, clinical examination, and laboratory results. Physicians must rule out any other condition that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction before considering CRPS/RSD.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment offer the highest probability of effective treatment and possible remission of CRPS/RSD

CRPS symptoms include:
Pain that is described as deep, aching, cold, burning, and/or increased skin sensitivity
An initiating injury or traumatic event, such as a sprain, fracture, minor surgery, etc., that should not cause as severe pain as being experienced or where the pain does not subside with healing
Pain (moderate-to-severe) associated with allodynia, that is, pain from something that should not cause pain, such as the touch of clothing or a shower
Continuing pain (moderate-to-severe) associated with hyperalgesia, that is, heightened sensitivity to painful stimulation)
Abnormal swelling in the affected area
Abnormal hair or nail growth
Abnormal skin color changes
Abnormal skin temperature, that is, one side of the body is warmer or colder than the other by more than 1°C
Abnormal sweating of the affected area
Limited range of motion, weakness, or other motor disorders such as paralysis or dystonia
Symptoms and signs can wax and wane
Can affect anyone, but is more common in women, with a recent increase in the number of children and adolescents who are diagnosed

The Mayo Clinic offers some extensive clinical information on CRPS and/or RSD.

It represents many CRPS chronic pain issues. So there may be more than 1 source of chronic pain. There may be syndromes. CRPS is one of them.

Dry Needling and acupuncture for chronic pain relief

Sufferers of pain are not masochists. Trying to relieve chronic muscular, skin, and joint pain usually can be masochistic. From hot creams to pills with nasty side-effects and to surgeries with marginal success, people with chronic pain go through many pains to relieve the unbelievable. What about needles as in Dry Needling and acupuncture for pain relief? Yikes! More pain? Actually many see it as longer-term relief.

Chronic pain often comes from physical sources. The lingering may also affect emotional, psychic, and energy.

Some say there’s nothing worse than chronic pain. From pharmacies, there are wide varieties of topical and oral analgesics to help sufferers. Doctors also have stronger prescription drugs for fighting inflammation…purportedly one of the triggers of muscular, nerve, and joint pains. Opioids are also prescribed to deaden pain but also nullify most aspects of living. Then there are surgical procedures. These may average only about 75+% accuracy in fixing the problem.

Chronic pain is not new. For thousands of years, Asian cultures have built philosophies that pain is derived from blocked energies. Acupuncture has been one that has survived through to our present era. Acupuncture uses needles placed at energy meridians. Some consider it kinky. Many see it as no alternative. Others swear by therapeutic validity. Many health and wellness centers add acupuncture to their menus of care options. In the West, it is called Dry-Needling.

Based on traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture seeks to balance one’s energy flow — chi — through pathways known as meridians in the body.

Dry needling employs a Western philosophy of attacking pain trigger points, the bands of tight fascia or muscle commonly known as knots.

Originally, anesthesia was injected through hypodermic needles. Researchers discovered it was the needles, not the medication, that did the work. Eventually, doctors and therapists switched to the very thin acupuncture — or dry — needles.

After needles are inserted, an electrical stimulation unit is connected by alligator clips.

The needles act like probes.The electric current does the magic.

The muscles twitch under the low current, sometimes making the needles appear to bounce. What’s happening is knotted muscle is being released, then the electrical stimulation clenches and unclenches the muscle hundreds of times to work out kinks and provide relief.

The vibrations are similar to using a TENS unit — transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation — in which the doctor or therapist places sticky pads on the target area.

Pain management is a medical discipline, They use painful steroid injections to combat some pain areas. An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a minimally invasive procedure that can help relieve neck, arm, back, and leg pain caused by inflamed spinal nerves. ESI may be performed to relieve pain caused by spinal stenosis, spondylolysis, or disc herniation.Under X-ray guidance, a small needle is then advanced into the epidural space. Pressure is the usual sensation felt during this procedure. If pain is felt, more local anesthetic will be used. Epidural injections may last for averages of up to one year. Some found relief for up to 5 years. Research to determine the effectiveness of these treatments in the lumbar spine has shown average success rates between 50 percent and 90 percent. Side effects vary from one person to another.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new procedure used to reduce pain under medical pain management. An electrical current produced by a radio wave is used to heat up a small area of nerve tissue, thereby decreasing pain signals from that specific area. RFA has proven to be a safe and effective way to treat some forms of pain. It also is generally well-tolerated, with very few associated complications. There is a slight risk of infection and bleeding at the insertion site. While treatment may be subjectively painful, new techniques are introduced for more accuracy and minimized pain. The healing process can take up to 2-4 weeks. Coolief is a newer version of RFA, claiming more comfort and reduced healing.

Pain management doctors also may prescribe a variety of drugs of different types that may help manage chronic pain.

Acupuncturists are not usually medically trained. They are trained by accupuncture schools. Some have rigorous standards and may take years to complete. The length of training at most schools is about three (3) years for acupuncture and four (4) years for Oriental medicine programs. The study of Oriental medicine includes both acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine.

For example, Olympc champion Michael Phelps used Cupping, as a technique to prepare hus muscles. According to USA National Institutes of Health, Cupping is a practice used in traditional medicine in several parts of the world, including China and the Middle East. It involves creating suction on the skin using a glass, ceramic, bamboo, or plastic cup. Negative pressure is created in the cup either by applying a flame to the cup to remove oxygen before placing it on the skin or by attaching a suction device to the cup after it is placed on the skin. In “wet cupping,” the skin is pierced, and blood flows into the cup. “Dry cupping” doesn’t involve piercing the skin. Used as a mode of therapy by trained acupuncturists, there is little western scientific evidence to support claims.

There is no scientific proof that the meridians or acupuncture points exist, and it is hard to prove that they either do or do not, but numerous studies suggest that acupuncture works for some conditions. Some experts have used neuroscience to explain acupuncture and associations with neurotransmitters and brain processes. There is also little scientific evidence to support or deny.

Pharmacies devote aisles of analgesics to help reduce chronic pain. Few of these have long-lasting effect and many have uncomfortable side effects…replacing one pain with another,

Statistics show that 1 out of 5 people may sometime develop chronic pain. Generally, when drug companies aim to help solve the problem, they target the pain in several ways.

Pfizer-Lily is one of the leading sources of these drugs. They indicate that when injury or inflammation occurs, a number of biochemical mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines, neuropeptides, and nerve growth factor (NGF), are released. In conditions related to chronic musculoskeletal pain, such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tendinitis, and chronic low back pain (CLBP), these mediators have been identified as key drivers of chronic pain.

Disease can also be the underlying cause of chronic pain. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia are well-known culprits, but persistent pain may also be due to such ailments as cancer, multiple sclerosis, stomach ulcers, AIDS, and gallbladder disease. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, neuralgia, and fibromyalgia are well-known culprits that trigger pain and are usually co-antagonists partnering the issue. Neuralgia is a sharp, shocking pain that follows the path of a nerve and is due to irritation or damage to the nerve. These nerves are found along the skeleton and impact muscles and joints in many ways.

Radiology has discovered several of the areas that may be catalysts and sources bring the pain. As nothing is 100%, the medical community seeks the least invasive methods to treat chronic pain. They use chiropractics and technologies to help reduce pain. Often something like fibromyalgia are more daunting as challenges. Fibromyalgia may be associated with hundreds of different source areas. And these are studied but it’s a slow process.

Chronic pain is not new. Acupuncture and dry needles were among the earliest attempts to cope or eliminate pain. Acupuncture was first mentioned and recorded in documents dating a few hundred years before the Common Era. Earlier instead of needles sharpened stones and long sharp bones were used around 6000 BCE for acupuncture treatment. Before stones, there may have been hands applying pressure (massage). Acupressure is a type of acupuncture. Both acupressure and acupuncture are based on same fundamental principle of acupoint activation across the meridians So chronic pain treatment may go back over 8000 years.

Today about 20% of people suffer from chronic pain. That’s more people than with diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.

Chronic pain differs from masochism as the pain is totally involuntary. A masochist is a person who is gratified by pain, degradation, etc., that is self-imposed or imposed by others…as an alternate lifestyle, according to the Diagnostic Statistic Manual (DSM). Chronic pain sufferers are most likely NOT masochists.

That does not debunk that chronic pain may not be mind induced. A pain disorder is chronic pain experienced by a patient in one or more areas, and is thought to be caused by psychological stress. The pain is often so severe that it disables the patient from proper functioning. Duration may be as short as a few days or as long as many years. Psychogenic pain is also known as psychological pain or depression. While psychogenic pain is primarily psychological, it is a very real type of chronic pain. … With psychogenic pain, however, there is often no physical cause to find and treat.

Chronic pain is a health condition that many still admit is shrouded by inconclusive sources. The belief that having sterile needles inserted, or electric nerve impulses probed are among many ways people seek to end chronic pain. Alas, there’s no conclusive answer. There are possible methods and acupuncture is among the oldest. Physical or psychological sourced, seeking help is often filled with risks that may be worse than the pain you are already experiencing.

Solutions are anti-masochistic attempts to be pain-free. Only one such solution may eliminate chronic pain. Some seek it. Since 1999, suicide rates have steadily increased, and suicide is now the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. The prevalence of chronic or severe pain has also risen, and researchers believe it could be contributing to the rise in suicide rates. It caught the attention of the CDC or Centers of Disease Control.

During the study period, the CDC identified 123,181 individuals who died by suicide, including 10,789 who experienced chronic pain. From 2003 to 2014, the percentage of suicides with chronic pain rose from 7.4 percent to 10.2 percent. Not a wide variance range so more studies are needed to see how prevalent chronic pain is to suicide rates.

Chronic pain sufferers, as long as there remain remedies for chronic pain. seek them out. It is yet another important reason why national health insurance is necessary. Research suggests that anywhere from 30 to 50% of people with chronic pain also struggle with depression or anxiety. Because chronic pain can affect an employee’s work performance and job satisfaction, it’s important that chronic pain is addressed and accommodated at a company. In 2012, NCBI through PubMed, posted a study conclusion: The body of evidence identified from the systematic review indicates that CP has a substantial negative impact on work-related outcomes, supporting the importance of interventions to reduce the burden of CP. Well-designed prospective studies specifically assessing the direct consequences of CP on employment are needed to confirm these findings.

While research is sparse, CP or Chronic Pain is an issue that USA needs to address. In an era where Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is prevalent beyond veterans. A 2013 study found that illness-focused pain coping mediated the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and both pain interference and pain severity.

Chronic pains are issues that need to be thoroughly examined. Sometimes untraditional traditions need to be included in research.

Concerta concert for ADHD

Somewhere in the recent 20th century, the medical community begat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) as an umbrella term for school age children with certain behavioral conditions. ADHD was first coined in 1902. ADHD became popular when APA recognize ADHD in the late 1960’s in the 1968 Diagnostic Statistics Manual. By the 1980’s, ADHD was a popular psychiatric condition for children who misbehaved.

ADHD is a chronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsive behaviors. ADHD begins in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. As many as 2 out of every 3 children with ADHD continue to have symptoms as adults.

According to the Centers of Disease Control (CDC), Millions of US children have been diagnosed with ADHD. The estimated number of children ever diagnosed with ADHD, according to a national 2016 parent survey, is 6.1 million.. This number includes: 388,000 children aged 2–5 years. 4 million children aged 6–11 years.Statistics, however, toll 4.4% of adults in the USA may have the ADHD diagnosis. Is it under-diagnosed among adults?

There are many chronic conditions. Some are genetic such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and Palsy. Neuralgia and arthritis may be developmental. Perhaps the biggest US pain (besides politics) is back pain. Compressed and or herniated spine discs are diagnosed as stenosis. Approximately, according to Medscape,250,000-500,000 US residents have symptoms of spinal stenosis. This represents about 1 per 1000 persons older than 65 years and about 5 of every 1000 persons older than 50 years. About 70 million Americans are older than 50 years, and this number is estimated to grow by 18 million in the next decade alone, suggesting that the prevalence of spinal stenosis will increase. Few have 100% treatments for pain relief of these.

ADHD seems to shift greatly when it comes to kids and adults under this umbrella. The term chronic, as through lifespan, brings great market potential for drugs and accessories to commonly treat ADHD sufferers. From ages 3 to 12, most of those sufferers are reported by parents. Concerta and Adderall are commonly prescribed drugs for those that fall beneath the ADHD umbrella.

There are a few prescription drugs used for treating some symptoms of ADHD. One of the first was Ritalin. In the 1980’s, if you’re child wasn’t taking Ritalin (a stimulant), it was considered odd. Ritalin was later replaced by Adderall and Concerta. Concerta was first to promote an Extended Release version that helped minimize side effects. The generic name of Concerta ER is methylphenidate extended-release tablets.

Current prescription drugs are designed for children and adults with ADD. Adderall contains amphetamine-like chemicals that stimulate the brain and central nervous system, producing a calming effect in adults and children with ADHD. Concerta is a stimulant that acts in a similar manner, but the effect is milder than that of amphetamines. Concerta is more common than Adderall.

According to Drugs.com, medical advice is urged. The “Do not use” information is vast:

Do not use Concerta if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. A dangerous drug interaction could occur. MAO inhibitors include isocarboxazid, linezolid, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine, and others, as well as methylene blue injection.

You should not use Concerta if you are allergic to methylphenidate, or if you have:

glaucoma

a personal or family history of tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome; or

severe anxiety, tension, or agitation (stimulant medicine can make these symptoms worse).

Stimulants have caused stroke, heart attack, and sudden death in certain people. Tell your doctor if you have:

heart problems or a congenital heart defect;

high blood pressure; or

a family history of heart disease or sudden death.

To make sure Concerta is safe for you, tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has ever had:

depression, mental illness, bipolar disorder, psychosis, or suicidal thoughts or actions;

motor tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome;

blood circulation problems in the hands or feet;

seizures or epilepsy;

problems with the esophagus, stomach, or intestines;

an abnormal brain wave test (EEG); or

a history of drug or alcohol addiction.

It is not known whether Concerta will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is unknown whether the active drug enters breast milk.

Suppose you pass precautionary tests, what might side effects be?

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking methylphenidate (the generic chemical found in Adderall and Concerta):

More common
Fast heartbeat

Less common
Chest pain
fever
joint pain
skin rash or hives

Rare
Black, tarry stools
blood in the urine or stools
blurred vision or other changes in vision
crusting, dryness, or flaking of the skin
muscle cramps
pinpoint red spots on the skin
scaling, severe redness, soreness, or swelling of the skin
seizures
uncontrolled vocal outbursts or tics (uncontrolled and repeated body movements)
unusual bleeding or bruising

Incidence not known
Confusion
depression
feeling like surroundings are not real
numbness of the hands
painful or difficult urination
pale skin
paleness or cold feeling in the fingertips and toes
red, irritated eyes
red, swollen, or scaly skin
seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
severe or sudden headache
sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
sudden loss of coordination
sudden slurring of speech
tingling or pain in the fingers or toes when exposed to cold
unusual behavior
unusual tiredness or weakness
weight loss
yellow skin or eyes
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking methylphenidate:

Symptoms of overdose may include:
Agitation
anxiety
bigger, dilated, or enlarged pupils of the eyes
confusion as to time, place, or person
dark-colored urine
diarrhea
dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
dry eyes, mouth, nose, or throat
false or unusual sense of well-being
fast, slow, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
holding false beliefs that cannot be changed by fact
increased sensitivity of the eyes to light
loss of consciousness
muscle pain or stiffness
muscle twitching
nervousness
overactive reflexes
pounding in the ears
rapid, shallow breathing
sweating
tremors
unusual excitement, nervousness, or restlessness

WOW! All these possible life threatening possibilities you might encounter as you try to resolve ADHD!

If ADHD is a disease at all, it is likely associated with several. Neuralgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis may be associated with 100’s of unknown but possible conditions. Is ADHD an actual disease or is it a trumped up classification?

Physicians who migt read labels are cautioned: CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Yes, these meds do help ADHD patients feel more normal but addiction is high.

ADDitude Journal is a great repository of ADHD information. Some small studies show that ADHD brains have low levels of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is linked arm-in-arm with dopamine. Dopamine is the thing that helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure center. The ADHD brain has impaired activity in four functional regions of the brain.

Some neuroscientists ask why has ADHD developed to such great proportions? Today’s ready access to electronic digital devices and the internet often substitute for social interaction. Such situation, if it starts in early childhood, in certain vulnerable individuals, who crave immediate rewards, can decrease the ability to maintain prolonged attention and tolerate delayed gratification, thus reinforcing future addictive behaviors. Essentially, many parents don’t realize that all those Smart devices that is “their world” also modifies how their brains process reality. Rewards and punishments are more pertinent from social media than traditional studying.

Assessing ADHD is generally subjective. Currently, clinical interviews and collateral histories from parents and teachers drive the standards. Only occasionally do we use objective assessments, such as continuous performance tasks and neuropsychological assessments, to evaluate whether or not a child can sustain attention, and whether their deficits lie in either or both auditory and visual domains. Other factors may be involved, such as motivation, low blood glucose, lack of sleep, or medication they are taking.

Thus, in the neuroscience perspective, actual ADHD diagnoses may actually be blown up to 5-times of those patients diagnosed with ADHD. Yet most Primary Care doctors hear the symptoms and prescribe Concerta ER.

As many world ADHD studies are relatively small, more work will need to establish whether Concerta ER is best for treatment. The manufacturers will hotly debate any results.

While diagnoses of ADHD may be more or less accurate, available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic — passed down from parent to child. It seems to “run in families” — at least in some families. At least one-third of all fathers who had ADHD in their youth have children with the condition. The majority of identical twins share the ADHD trait.

All this aside, ADHD adults are smart, articulate, and hold responsible jobs. Perhaps ADHD-Adult may be more of a mix than most doctors realize. Yet…doctors are the professionals patients interface with. Problems could be elsewhere.

I believe ADHD has become more of an umbrella term among doctors and parents, regarding the behavior of their children. Personalities differ as do cultural and parental interaction. Most important, this is a digital age and kids can access and use devices more efficiently than parents. ADHD may be a reality today. Kids are kids. How they behave unlocks new doors from 1 gen to the next. Who knows how these kids develop and whether ADHD will be the problem it is today. Who knows if the Concerta concert will be valid.

What brainwaves have to do with it?

What’s your frequency? Brain theorists believe that certain health conditions may be caused and effected by the 4 or 5 frequencies your brain functions at. What do brain waves have to do with it?

The human brain is made up of brain cells called neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical brain waves. The pattern of brain waves changes depending on one’s level of consciousness and cognitive processing. For example, when one feels fatigued or dreamy, slower brainwaves are likely dominant at that time.

Feeling stressed out? Brain waves may be one of the underlying causes. Some studies indicate that cyclical speeds our brain waves may contribute to ADHD and Hypertension.

Brainwaves are produced by synchronized electrical pulses from masses of neurons communicating with each other. Brainwaves are detected using sensors placed on the scalp. Brainwave speed is measured in Hertz (cycles per second) and they are divided into bands delineating slow, moderate, and fast waves.

There are 5 types of brain waves your brain generates:

Gamma waves >40 Hz –
Higher mental activity, including perception, problem solving, and consciousness

Beta waves – 13–39 Hz
Active, busy thinking, active processing , active concentration, arousal, and cognition

Alpha waves – 7–13 Hz
Calm relaxed yet alert state

Theta waves – 4-7 Hz Deep meditation /relaxation, REM sleep. REM sleep is an exception, with recorded speeds of 30 to 50 Hz, During REM, you experience dream episodes. In addition, neurotransmitters work at forming long-term memory storage.

Delta waves – < 4 Hz Deep dreamless sleep, loss of body awareness Gamma and Beta are associated with wakefulness Alpha, Theta, Delta are associated with relaxation. Awakening from Delta or during a REM is indicative of deep, meditative sleep. They are generated in deepest meditation and dreamless sleep. According to Scientific American, Delta waves typically center around a range of 1.5 to 4 cycles per second. They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were brain dead. But, deep dreamless sleep would take you down to the lowest frequency. Being jolted awake at Delta often results in confusion. During Alpha and Theta, your brain and body are flushed with neurotransmitters that deal with memory and reduced inflammation. A recent 2013 study found that the ADHD brain tends to produce more Theta waves than the brains of average folks. Theta waves are the ones you produce as you’re nodding off to sleep. Or watching a boring TV show or movie. They indicate a state of deep relaxation.

For the study, teens between the ages of 12 and 17 were asked to perform computer tasks that involved perceiving a visual stimulus that would then trigger brain regions involved in decision-making, which then led to physical action — in this case, pressing a button.

Researchers found that the 17 participants that were predominantly diagnosed with the inattentive (IA) subtype of ADHD had the least amount of alpha wave suppression — necessary to filter out visual “noise” in order to make an accurate decision.

In 2014 deviations in brainwaves were said to detect presence/severity of Alzheimer’s Disease.

According to the American Nutrition Association, the reason why brain waves are important is because the delta/beta cycle causes an elevation in blood sugar levels and blood pressure throughout the day.

Beta waves in the high frequencies can cause agitation and anxiety perhaps caused by too much dopamine release. Dopamine problems are implicated in ADHD, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, depression, bipolar disorders, binge eating, addiction, gambling, and schizophrenia.

Anxiety and panic attacks are associated with decreased alpha waves, increased high beta waves, and can be affected by low delta and theta waves. There is a delicate balance of the chemicals called neurotransmitters required within the body for best emotional and physiological health.

Previous studies showed that people with chronic pain experience abnormal neural oscillations, or brain waves. There are several kinds of brain waves related to different brain regions and various kinds of brain activities. People with chronic pain, it is believed, often may have brainwaves to blame. Stress puts you at Beta waves, putting you on alert. You’re waiting to respond. But, as in the classic movie Forbidden Planet, those monsters can not be fought off. It becomes fight, flight, or die. Over time, the brain and central nervous system learn to continue to put the body into a painful state, which repeats the pain cycle. In a sense, staying in Beta might be associated with chronic pain, with no other explanation. Unfortunately, few studies have been large enough for results to have wide acceptance.

One study at University at North Carolina in 2018 demonstrated promising results that stimulating brains helped reduce lower back pain. While chronic lower back pain has many sufferers, this study had only 30 people. Those aren’t enough to persuade a medical community away from codeine painkillers and surgeries. Yet, this study is one of many small studies showing how brainwaves and chronic pain may be related.

As such, many areas have devised treatment centers and recommendations to help induce alpha waves when beta is out of control.

In an article, published in Medical News Today, there are discussions as to how using EEG bio-feedback helps change brainwave patterns to treat conditions that are now only treated by drugs:

EEG biofeedback may help patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, anxiety, seizures, depression, and other types of brain condition.

During a biofeedback session, the therapist attaches electrodes to the patient’s skin, and these send information to a monitoring box.

The therapist views the measurements on the monitor, and, through trial and error, identifies a range of mental activities and relaxation techniques that can help regulate the patient’s bodily processes.

Lacking large empirical studies, biofeedback therapy may not be covered as acceptable treatments by some health insurances. It may require 20 sessions at about $100+ per session.

The goal of biofeedback is often to make subtle changes to the body that result in a desired effect. The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) defines biofeedback as a process that allows people to alter their physiological activity in order to improve health or performance. The American Medical Association defines biofeedback as an alternative therapy. The AAPB is the key organization supporting biofeedback as brainwave therapy.

The study of brainwaves has been observed since 1930, when the EEG was developed. Biofeedback has been applied to studies of sensory deprivation, bi-polar issues, and sleep studies. The questionably issues of brainwaves biofeedback within the USA, as opposed to Europe is that applied science is not viewed as valid as medical science.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a biofeedback device, Resperate, for reducing stress and lowering blood pressure. Resperate is a portable electronic device that promotes slow, deep breathing. However, the FDA doesn’t regulate many biofeedback devices marketed for home use. So…the FDA allows home use of a biofeedback product that, used correctly, may help reduce brainwaves for reducing blood pressure and stress.

I’d recommend using AAPB as a method of finding resources and clinicians for biofeedback. Overall, the integrity of brainwaves has helped people survive over millennia. Reckless use of this method as a cure for many diseases may have other problems emerge. I would like to see further study of brainwaves in large empirical studies to call it a medical utopia.

But many have tried biofeedback and brainwaves therapy. High positive subjective reviews. So if you have chronic hypertension, pain, ADHD, anxiety, and sleeplessness….might be worth a try.

Riker’s Island progressive alternate approaches

New York City has tackled homelessness for decades with no major resolve. Under Mayor DeBlasio, a new plan targets the destruction of Riker’s Island, a large island of buildings where poor, homeless, disenfranchised people are awaiting trial and justice. What once was designed to endure a speedy process is now jailing tens of thousands of men and women awaiting verdicts of guilt or innocence.

The jails on Riker’s Island remain largely filled with people who have yet to be tried, and those prisoners remain overwhelmingly black and Hispanic and too poor to afford bail, according to a 2017 report from the city’s Independent Budget Office.

The 400+ acre island has about 10 buildings and one infirmary. The average daily inmate population on the island is about 10,000, although it can hold a maximum of 15,000. The daytime population (including staff) can be 20,000 or more. The plan, under the auspices of the Department of Corrections is a projected 8.7 billion dollar plan. The goal is to shutter Riker’s Island, with an ambitious proposal that would replace the island with four borough-based jails by 2026. What failed with housing the homeless is being done for the impoverished in jail.

According to a 2017 article in the Village Voice, the average daily jail population last year was 9,790, of which 78 percent were people awaiting trial. Of those pretrial detainees, 52 percent were black, 33 percent Hispanic, and 10 percent white, the report found. (New York City’s overall population in 2010 was 44 percent white, 28 percent Latino, and 25 percent black, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.)

Perhaps one of the most infamous prisons (that is not a prison) is on Riker’s Island in New York City. This is the jail where some unprivileged, arrested, and arraigned New York people await being processed through the judicial system. New York Mayor Bill deBlasio wants to destroy the prisons on Riker’s Island and move them to other city boroughs.

The city Department of Correction is pushing hard to empty a Brooklyn jail by early 2020 to fast-track Mayor Bill de Blasio’s ultimate goal of closing the main lockup on Rikers Island, union officials told The Post. Of course, the Mayor was before he left the US Presidential race.

Those with lawyers usually don’t end up at Riker’s Island. They are processed in other jails. Riker’s Island is the distribution system for the poor, the sick, and awaiting Legal-Aid. It is overcrowded, dangerous, old, and mismanaged. They haven’t been convicted of a crime.

What we call Riker’s Island is thought to be named after Abraham Rycken, a Dutch settler who moved to Long Island in 1638 and whose descendants owned Riker’s Island until 1884, when it was sold to the city for $180,000. The island was used as a military training ground during the Civil War.

Around 1896, Public Charities managed the City’s hospitals and soup kitchens, and the Correction Department controlled penal institutions including the Penitentiary and Workhouse on Blackwell’s Island (now Roosevelt Island), City Prison, the Manhattan Tombs, the five district prisons and, the City cemetery on Hart Island known as Potter’s Field. In 1898, Brooklyn and Queens were added to New York City, creating a 5 borough network.

Riker’s Island was, like many parts of the city, marsh. Wetlands were pervasive throughout New York City. Landfill was used to help create dry lands. “Sanitary” landfills operate by layering waste in a large hole. Then they are covered with gravel and dirt. Landfill was waste management in the late 1800’s. It was used to connect Coney Island to Brighton Beach in Brooklyn.

In the 1900’s New York had a fetish of using landfills, especially with all its tunnel construction projects for the railroad and subway construction. They also use it to construct NY water tunnels 1 and 2. The side-effect….rats. Rats that loved waste. Overlooked rat eggs hatching in the land. This is why many NYC areas have major rat communities.

In 1931, landfill was used to construct Riker’s Island. Behold, it was rat infested. No safe rodent poison was available. Construction of the jails meant dealing with the rats. Strong, thick concrete foundations helped reduce rodent passage to cells. After nearly 90 years, those cement foundations wore away with little maintenance over years depending on the city’s budget needs.

Cities are important human environments and the proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas has been consistently increasing. The relationship between crime rates and population density is unclear from an intuitive standpoint. It seems likely that crime rates increase as population densities increase. According to the NYC Department of Planning, NYC has the most dense population of any city in the USA. Try riding an NYC bus or train during peak rush hour. There’s hardly any space to sit or stand comfortably.

Proxemics studies how humans create and respond to personal and public territories. Proxemics includes how we interact in our personal territory, physical territory, and geographic territory. There are four different kinds of space in our personal territory: public, social, personal, and intimate.

In dense populations, according to income status, education status, and affordability for “basic” needs, there will be areas with more crime and less crime. Aside from murder, there are burglaries and street crime. Those bent on mugging or stealing create territoriality and times to do their thing. While NYC is seen as 24/7, many streets are best used sunrise to sunset, especially park spaces. Riker’s Island jails are generally overcrowded and poorly staffed. Among desperate poor and sick awaiting trial, lack of spatial and ergonomic jail conditions result in fights, stabbings, drug use, sex abuse and general anger virtually 24/7. Yes, prison behavior in a jail awaiting trial. Add those to being cooped up in a dirty, rotting, rodent infested jail.

According to NYC, the proposed plans include easier ways to pay bail; reduce time people spend in jail by speeding the time that cases take; reduce the number of State parole violators using city jails; provide judges with updated evidence-based tools; replace short sentences with social support programs; expand dedicated housing for people with mental illness; technology expansion; reduction of adolescent and female populations at Riker’s. All reverent goals for a population awaiting trial that must prove guilt. They are innocent by law until guilt is proven.

Provided this proposal goes through, additional spaces within 4 boroughs are being sought for storing the jail populations.

Here lie some problems. Borough perimeters, often considered poor areas, were taken by many NYCHA projects in the 1050’s to 1970’s. Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan now have greenway recreation areas built or in the process of building.

Many neighborhoods in all boroughs have seen an elevation in real-estate values, gentrification, and upscale development. What is the likelihood that residents of rentals, and apartments or homes are going to accept jails constructed nearby?

Mayor Bloomberg once touted plans for the homeless to live on barges.

In addition to New York’s 5 boroughs, New York City contains about 36 to 42 islands in total.These were used for small pox rehab, yellow fever rehab, reform schools, orphanages, insane asylums, and more. Early New York City wisely, before 20th century medicine, kept the ill away from Manhattan by using those islands. New York City recently added Governor’s Island. These islands might better be suited for use for an NYC jail construction. Some still have electricity and water since last used in the 1960’s.

Ward’s Island was the newest of New York State’s psychiatric hospitals, shut in th 1980’s. Today it is part of the city as Manhattan Psychiatric Center. It was built in the 1950’s to replace a structure of the 1860’s, NYC House of Refuge (for the homeless) and became Manhattan State Psychiatric Hospital. This facility, with some progressive rethinking, could be an option as part of the Riker’s Island renovation project.

Ward’s Island is situated near Hart’s Island, almost between Riker’s and Ward’s islands. The city’s current potter’s field, and one of the largest cemeteries in the United States, with at least 800,000 burials, is on Hart Island. There are facilities where Riker’s Island inmates buried the anonymous, unclaimed bodies.

To an outsider, no matter what anyone claims, being jailed is a grim, horrific experience. When you’re poor and have no money for bail and waiting for free legal-aid, being arrested is a frightening mode. In a society where people are considered innocent before proven guilty, there are progressive ways to use the city’s existing areas and facilities (that already exist). It is a more cost-effective and value preserving search to help improve the NYC Jails. New York City’s approaches to handling cases must meet progressive technologies as an example to all others.

I am surprised that our progressive Mayor does not see potential resources for accelerating NYC Jail improvements. The resources are there. Progressive means better living choices for all. For the victims at Riker’s, faster judicial processing and better facilities are a good idea. Using Ward’s Island and part of other uncharted city islands permits faster resolve, without messing lifestyles of neighborhoods and city residents.

PACs United States experiment unity divisiveness

Independent political action committees, called PACs, spend huge amounts of money to elected officials. Politics means business. PACs generate thousands to millions of dollars. They maneuver the government away from basic governance to new flavors. Not necessarily better.

For years, people running for elected offices have been deriding independent Political Action Committees or PACs. It never seems to happen. As awful as PACs may be seen, they coexist behind the impressive democracy and republic that makes USA unique and a destination.

It’s all about group dynamics. PACs address how groups in the USA (and elsewhere) impact our daily lives. They rarely agree. Outcome and values are always at odds making unity a constant challenge. Here is a list of top-20 PAC contributions to candidates 2017 to 2018. Are they working for or against you?

Radio and TV are wonderful. Through the 20th century and into the 21st, one channel became thousands of channels for entertainment, news, and lifestyle enhancers. Yet many of us stick to our favorites. One’s favored channel list may be five or 10 channels. My list may be different than yours. Channels are the many pre-paved paths we follow and help us create our own. In societies where freedom of choice exist, reality defies tradition and values over dictatorial guidance. Yet these societies still flourish. Often people still have few choices and freedom comes at costs. Influence and power to choose is expensive. Do many seek influence by one or many? When it comes to group dynamics, any group, PACs guide unity and diversity. Independent United States secretly is an experiment how diversity remains unified. Are PACs vital values?

The old testament claims that a God created the Earth. Then came people. Surviving as groups of people. Some claim goddesses preceded gods and others believed that idols represented the divine aspects of god. Few believed in an abstract invisible one god. Other’s believe that God needed a son. Before liberals and conservatives, no group really was in agreement. It was a game of thrones. PACs (Political Action Committees) are to democracies what advisers are to monarchic royalty and dictators. They wield power as invisibilities and very divisible outside of traditional government structures. When thinking about lifestyles and living, PACs exert huge degrees of power behind the scenes.

The president, judicial system, congress, and senate have other people of many different interests that want to influence decisions. There are over 4,600 active, registered PACs are “connected PACs” established by businesses, labor unions, trade groups, or health organizations. Then there are almost unmeasurable PACs that are not connected. A non connected committee does not have a “connected organization”—that is, no corporation or labor organization establishes, administers or raises money for a non-connected committee. (An SSF, by definition, always has a sponsoring corporation or labor organization.) SSF are even more ominous PACs. A separate segregated fund (SSF) is a political organization that is tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code section 527. It may be a Traditional Federal PAC, State PAC, or a 527 organization that does not report to the Federal Election Commission. This may include religions, racial, and many others. All of these PACs work to influence our government.

Did you know that the Ku-Klux Klan (KKK) flourished as an influential PAC during Prohibition. The Klan’s main targets were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, especially Catholic ones. It was clear that the KKK hated the Jews and Blacks. Prohibition, white Anglo-saxon protestant Americans advocated, would escalate drinking and criminality among the immigrants of the 1920’s. Prohibition was tied up in anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic bias, a clear KKK position that supported the Republican USA government. KKK revived after a major silent film, Birth of a Nation (1915) glorified the KKK. By 1921, membership in the Ku Klux Klan was rapidly spreading throughout America and an active chapter had been formed in Tulsa. On August 8, 1925 over 50,000 KKK members rallied and marched in Washington, DC. At another large KKK rally, in Queens, NYC, President Trump’s father (Fred Trump) was arrested. The KKK was a political power influencing politicians through the 1920’s. Fred Trump’s role in the riot is unclear. It is unclear how pervasive the KKK is today. According to Anti-Defammation League, KKK membership appears to be declining. An Alabama-based law center reported a sharp increase in neo-Nazi groups, from 99 in 2016 to 121 last year. And it counted a total of 954 active “hate groups” in 2017, an increase of 4 percent over the previous year. Do these have SSF PACs?

Then there are millions of writers, commentators, celebrities, and pundits that put-in their 2-cents that make-up the media. Within the tossed salad of the United States, via the internet, divisiveness lives and truths or facts become even more abstract. With 2020 elections coming, the voting public has much to discern before casting votes. Few go beyond Twitter to learn about other views.

Divisiveness and differences of opinions reflect free societies. Any person can express opinions and social media platforms are easy venues. Yet, public figures are under critical scrutiny by everyone. PACs work behinds those scenes. PACs can sidestep rules and regulations by creating as many as the prime organizations want over different classes of PACs.

PACs are neither good nor bad, depending on perspective. They do exert influence to elected officials and their staff. PACs have probably been around since the dawn of groups and politics. Just about any interest group you can think of has a presence in Washington-and spends money to maintain that presence. They do and can affect your life. PACs lobby elected officials with constancy.

Professional advocates make big bucks to lobby members of Congress and government officials on the issues their clients care about. But the money that industries, companies, unions and issue groups spend on lobbying is often just a drop in the bucket compared to what they can reap in return if their lobbyists are successful. Here you can see who spends what on federal lobbying and where they focus their resources. When you join religious organizations, AARP, ASPCA, even fraternal organizations, these and others have lobbies resourced through PACs.

Of course PACs have been very creative. Many thwart efforts of campaign finance reform.

For the longest time, campaign ads were almost exclusively produced by candidates and political parties, but in recent years outside issue groups have been getting in on the action. They often operate as so-called 527 committees (taking their name from the relevant section of the IRS tax code). Sometimes mysteriously named, these advocacy groups frequently have ties to labor, big business and super-wealthy individuals. Unlike political committees, they can accept unlimited contributions from just about anyone, and they deploy that money in various ways to influence elections.

Beyond international hacking, these 527 PACs operate within Cities, States, and Washington.

The Koch brothers, owners of Koch industries is a big business that works under 527 tax codes. Koch owns Invista, Georgia-Pacific, Molex, Flint Hills Resources, Koch Pipeline, Koch Fertilizer, Koch Minerals, Matador Cattle Company, and Guardian Industries. The firm employs 120,000 people in 60 countries, with about half of its business in the United States. In 2012, the Kochs’ network spent just under $400 million, an astonishing sum at the time. The $889 million spending goal for 2016 would put it on track to spend nearly as much as the campaigns of each party’s presidential nominee.

Koch supported Tea Party candidates and are against the Affordable Care Act. Most likely you are supporting Koch by buying one of their home paper products. Here are a list of companies and industries in which the Koch brothers own a stake: Paper Products: Angelsoft, Brawny, Dixie, Mardi Gras, Quilted Northern, Soft n Gentle, Sparkle, Vanity Fair. Another Koch company is Georgia-Pacific (largest plywood manufacturer in US. The Koch brothers support the Libertarian Party. Koch supports abolition of Social Security, the FBI, the CIA, and public schools. They favor and support candidates that agree.

So, when President Trump doesn’t want to share tax returns, it isn’t necessarily due to collusion with foreign entities. It can be more sinister. He might have strong bonds with 527-code PACs.

USA citizens seek peace, unity, economic security, education, comforts, and more. But who gets to share?

Over 310 Religions and Denominations are found in the United States. They do not coexist as a melting pot of values and traditions. They are more like a tossed salad. There are about 21 Christian religions in the United States. 75% of polled American adults identify themselves as Christian in 2015. Religion in the United States (2016) are polled as Protestantism (48.9%) Roman Catholicism (23.0%) Mormonism (1.8%) No religion (18.2%) Judaism (2.1%) Islam (0.8%). Each of these has a PAC.

According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, there are currently over 1,000 hate groups throughout the United States. National Public Radio (NPR) posted that hate groups in the USA have increased 30% since 2015 and 7% in 2018 alone. An American Values Super PAC has been trying to form over past year as a Republican/Conservative PAC.

Let’s face it! Without fear of being punished, freedom breeds divisiveness. About 2-1/2 centuries since the first USA congress, this experiment of a free society has endured many conflicts with divisive perspectives. As people, we seem to relish in being divisive and unified. War has been part of civilization for over thousands of years.

Throughout history, individuals, states, or political factions have gained sovereignty over regions through the use of war. The history of one of the earliest civilizations in the world, that of Mesopotamia, is a chronicle of nearly constant strife. Even after Sargon the Great of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE) unified the region under the Akkadian Empire, war was still waged in putting down rebellions or fending off invaders. In those days, they fought for resources and slave labor. Today, war is economically sound.

Besides guns and bullets, our soldiers need many things. Companies, like those controlled by Koch brothers, compete for what toilet paper and napkins are bought for use, clothes and shoes, foods, accessories, and other necessities of survival from home.

All competitors have PACs influencing military branches and representatives for contracts. So if Koch PACs are contributing a billion dollars toward political leaders that are aligned with extreme conservative views, they gain on sales to resolve conflicts militarily. Influence gains profit. Military PACs don’t care about resources and slaves. They seek money and government on their side.

Political influence, power, money have been very influential in building Unites States’ vast infrastructure from railroads to highways to tunnels and bridges. Though these were the basis of how PACs began, many members of State and Federal representatives were profiting from certain projects.

In a way, divisiveness in 2019 aren’t that much different than the temperance and hate dynamics from after the Civil War 1865 to 1919 Prohibition. Different PACs, similar divisiveness.

Religious PACs are burning about abortion, political correctness, upward shifting roles of women, non-white races, and waves of immigration. They have been seeking leadership and strong support since the 1950’s but especially since the end of segregation in the 1970’s. Intolerance to these have risen. Liberalism has been added as a scapegoat. Their leader is President Donald Trump. About 45% (give or take 9%) population sympathetic within these PACs hope Trump will be their god. Ironically, this takes Lincoln’s famous words, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people.” toward a division that the USA has witnessed more than once. We are aware of the influence business behind PACs. Will they shift the country to what they believe are traditional values? Will church and state take precedence again?

The First Amendment which ratified in 1791 states that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” However, the phrase “separation of church and state” itself does not appear in the United States Constitution. The First Amendment not only allows citizens the freedom to practice any religion of their choice, but also prevents the government from officially recognizing or favoring any religion. By 1833, all states had disestablished religion from government, providing protections for religious liberty in state constitutions. American Value PACs do realize that governing by Church and State are unclear in the US Constitution. Religion in the United States is remarkable in its high adherence level compared to other developed countries. So…are American Values integrated as the white protestants of past 300 years?

Given many alternative views, PACs represent the voices and needs of the many groups of these United States – from people to the environment. They help our elected representatives remember diverse priorities. Of course, wealthy PACs bear more weight than small ones. When it comes to business, these PACs have many interests.

Throughout it all, even with social media politics, PACs remain in (backyard) control. There’s an apathy in the USA about voting, viewing debates, and reading candidate websites. Getting everyone to vote is even harder. Most people already have an idea what party they’ll choose. No one is demonstrating. There are no protests. Few write their representatives via e-mail. Through all the bickering, 2020 is really hanging on a lottery draw. Behind all the media, PACs may control the outcome as invisible motivators behind the scenes.

Growing after dormancy of 100 years, are Progressive PACs and GOP-Lite (mid-road PACs). They struggle to recreate a cohesive identity. It’s a very big struggle as huge PACs feed the extremes. Over 100 years ago, Progressive meant pro-Unions – indivisible PACs. In the 1960’s, with the Vietnam war and military draft affecting the young, civil rights (etc) the “New Left” was the name loosely associated with liberal, radical, Marxist political movements that took place during the 1960’s, primarily among college students. These fizzled since then. Transitioning to more left PACs takes time. It takes greater identity and willingness to demonstrate like the 1900’s and the 1960’s.

Virtually any cause is somehow represented by a PAC seeking exposure and influence.

By the people and for the people has, in some ways, been taken over by PACs. Trump relies on his 43% base of followers almost as a PAC than a President. The other 57% need a voice. PACs try to bring back their perceptual views of facts and reasoning to the USA.

Within a global economy, to realize the dream that Abraham Lincoln intoned: By the people, of the people, and for the people. When we say “We the people”, we are us. We must remember that no elected official is greater. PACs do not have to be instigators into divisiveness. Divisiveness results when interests are in sharp oppositions. The right to vote for your candidate is priceless. Study their possible link to PACs. Politics is and always has been business, your business and lifestyle.