Somewhere in the recent 20th century, the medical community begat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) as an umbrella term for school age children with certain behavioral conditions. ADHD was first coined in 1902. ADHD became popular when APA recognize ADHD in the late 1960’s in the 1968 Diagnostic Statistics Manual. By the 1980’s, ADHD was a popular psychiatric condition for children who misbehaved.
ADHD is a chronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsive behaviors. ADHD begins in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. As many as 2 out of every 3 children with ADHD continue to have symptoms as adults.
According to the Centers of Disease Control (CDC), Millions of US children have been diagnosed with ADHD. The estimated number of children ever diagnosed with ADHD, according to a national 2016 parent survey, is 6.1 million.. This number includes: 388,000 children aged 2–5 years. 4 million children aged 6–11 years.Statistics, however, toll 4.4% of adults in the USA may have the ADHD diagnosis. Is it under-diagnosed among adults?
There are many chronic conditions. Some are genetic such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and Palsy. Neuralgia and arthritis may be developmental. Perhaps the biggest US pain (besides politics) is back pain. Compressed and or herniated spine discs are diagnosed as stenosis. Approximately, according to Medscape,250,000-500,000 US residents have symptoms of spinal stenosis. This represents about 1 per 1000 persons older than 65 years and about 5 of every 1000 persons older than 50 years. About 70 million Americans are older than 50 years, and this number is estimated to grow by 18 million in the next decade alone, suggesting that the prevalence of spinal stenosis will increase. Few have 100% treatments for pain relief of these.
ADHD seems to shift greatly when it comes to kids and adults under this umbrella. The term chronic, as through lifespan, brings great market potential for drugs and accessories to commonly treat ADHD sufferers. From ages 3 to 12, most of those sufferers are reported by parents. Concerta and Adderall are commonly prescribed drugs for those that fall beneath the ADHD umbrella.
There are a few prescription drugs used for treating some symptoms of ADHD. One of the first was Ritalin. In the 1980’s, if you’re child wasn’t taking Ritalin (a stimulant), it was considered odd. Ritalin was later replaced by Adderall and Concerta. Concerta was first to promote an Extended Release version that helped minimize side effects. The generic name of Concerta ER is methylphenidate extended-release tablets.
Current prescription drugs are designed for children and adults with ADD. Adderall contains amphetamine-like chemicals that stimulate the brain and central nervous system, producing a calming effect in adults and children with ADHD. Concerta is a stimulant that acts in a similar manner, but the effect is milder than that of amphetamines. Concerta is more common than Adderall.
According to Drugs.com, medical advice is urged. The “Do not use” information is vast:
Do not use Concerta if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. A dangerous drug interaction could occur. MAO inhibitors include isocarboxazid, linezolid, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine, and others, as well as methylene blue injection.
You should not use Concerta if you are allergic to methylphenidate, or if you have:
a personal or family history of tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome; or
severe anxiety, tension, or agitation (stimulant medicine can make these symptoms worse).
Stimulants have caused stroke, heart attack, and sudden death in certain people. Tell your doctor if you have:
heart problems or a congenital heart defect;
high blood pressure; or
a family history of heart disease or sudden death.
To make sure Concerta is safe for you, tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has ever had:
depression, mental illness, bipolar disorder, psychosis, or suicidal thoughts or actions;
motor tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome;
blood circulation problems in the hands or feet;
seizures or epilepsy;
problems with the esophagus, stomach, or intestines;
an abnormal brain wave test (EEG); or
a history of drug or alcohol addiction.
It is not known whether Concerta will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is unknown whether the active drug enters breast milk.
Suppose you pass precautionary tests, what might side effects be?
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking methylphenidate (the generic chemical found in Adderall and Concerta):
skin rash or hives
Black, tarry stools
blood in the urine or stools
blurred vision or other changes in vision
crusting, dryness, or flaking of the skin
pinpoint red spots on the skin
scaling, severe redness, soreness, or swelling of the skin
uncontrolled vocal outbursts or tics (uncontrolled and repeated body movements)
unusual bleeding or bruising
Incidence not known
feeling like surroundings are not real
numbness of the hands
painful or difficult urination
paleness or cold feeling in the fingertips and toes
red, irritated eyes
red, swollen, or scaly skin
seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
severe or sudden headache
sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
sudden loss of coordination
sudden slurring of speech
tingling or pain in the fingers or toes when exposed to cold
unusual tiredness or weakness
yellow skin or eyes
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking methylphenidate:
Symptoms of overdose may include:
bigger, dilated, or enlarged pupils of the eyes
confusion as to time, place, or person
dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
dry eyes, mouth, nose, or throat
false or unusual sense of well-being
fast, slow, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
holding false beliefs that cannot be changed by fact
increased sensitivity of the eyes to light
loss of consciousness
muscle pain or stiffness
pounding in the ears
rapid, shallow breathing
unusual excitement, nervousness, or restlessness
WOW! All these possible life threatening possibilities you might encounter as you try to resolve ADHD!
If ADHD is a disease at all, it is likely associated with several. Neuralgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis may be associated with 100’s of unknown but possible conditions. Is ADHD an actual disease or is it a trumped up classification?
Physicians who migt read labels are cautioned: CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Yes, these meds do help ADHD patients feel more normal but addiction is high.
ADDitude Journal is a great repository of ADHD information. Some small studies show that ADHD brains have low levels of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is linked arm-in-arm with dopamine. Dopamine is the thing that helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure center. The ADHD brain has impaired activity in four functional regions of the brain.
Some neuroscientists ask why has ADHD developed to such great proportions? Today’s ready access to electronic digital devices and the internet often substitute for social interaction. Such situation, if it starts in early childhood, in certain vulnerable individuals, who crave immediate rewards, can decrease the ability to maintain prolonged attention and tolerate delayed gratification, thus reinforcing future addictive behaviors. Essentially, many parents don’t realize that all those Smart devices that is “their world” also modifies how their brains process reality. Rewards and punishments are more pertinent from social media than traditional studying.
Assessing ADHD is generally subjective. Currently, clinical interviews and collateral histories from parents and teachers drive the standards. Only occasionally do we use objective assessments, such as continuous performance tasks and neuropsychological assessments, to evaluate whether or not a child can sustain attention, and whether their deficits lie in either or both auditory and visual domains. Other factors may be involved, such as motivation, low blood glucose, lack of sleep, or medication they are taking.
Thus, in the neuroscience perspective, actual ADHD diagnoses may actually be blown up to 5-times of those patients diagnosed with ADHD. Yet most Primary Care doctors hear the symptoms and prescribe Concerta ER.
As many world ADHD studies are relatively small, more work will need to establish whether Concerta ER is best for treatment. The manufacturers will hotly debate any results.
While diagnoses of ADHD may be more or less accurate, available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic — passed down from parent to child. It seems to “run in families” — at least in some families. At least one-third of all fathers who had ADHD in their youth have children with the condition. The majority of identical twins share the ADHD trait.
All this aside, ADHD adults are smart, articulate, and hold responsible jobs. Perhaps ADHD-Adult may be more of a mix than most doctors realize. Yet…doctors are the professionals patients interface with. Problems could be elsewhere.
I believe ADHD has become more of an umbrella term among doctors and parents, regarding the behavior of their children. Personalities differ as do cultural and parental interaction. Most important, this is a digital age and kids can access and use devices more efficiently than parents. ADHD may be a reality today. Kids are kids. How they behave unlocks new doors from 1 gen to the next. Who knows how these kids develop and whether ADHD will be the problem it is today. Who knows if the Concerta concert will be valid.